**** Cancer Risk Factors
Posted By: Sierra Austin on October 07, 2008 |
By the end 2001, 192,200 women will be diagnosed with **** cancer by the end of this year, and about 40,600 will die from the disease. Although men can get **** cancer, this is extremely rare. (Source: American Cancer Society)
**** cancer is extremely rare in women younger than 20 and is very rare in women under 30. The incidence of **** cancer rises with age and becomes significant by age 50.
Women's Lifetime **** Cancer Risk
by age 30 by age 40 by age 50 by age 60 by age 70 by age 80
1 in 2,525 1 in 217 1 in 50 1 in 24 1 in 14 1 in 10
Source: National Cancer Institute
Ethnicity and Race
White Non-Hispanic women have the highest incidence rate for **** cancer among the following US racial/ethnic groups, and Korean women have the lowest.
African American women have the highest mortality rate for **** cancer among these same groups (31 per 100,000), while Chinese women have the lowest at 11 per 100,000.
Source: Racial/Ethnic Patterns of Cancer in the United States 1988-1992, NCI
The following factors are important as they relate to the effect of hormones on the ****. These factors increase **** cancer risk due to the role of ovarian hormones in **** development.
Ovarian hormones initiate **** development, and subsequent monthly menstrual cycles induce normal **** cell growth, known medically as "proliferation." **** cells are not fully developed or "differentiated," however, until they are able to lactate or produce milk. Until **** cells are fully mature as lactating cells, they are more susceptible to changes that can promote **** cancer. Factors that promote cell proliferation (e.g. hormones) or alter the genetic material required for proliferation (e.g. radiation) can cause cancerous changes.
Age of Menarche (Onset of ****)
Early menarche has consistently been shown to be associated with increased risk for **** cancer. The more menstrual cycles a woman has, the more exposure to hormonal influences she experiences, increasing her risk for **** cancer as explained above.
Age of First Full-Term Pregnancy
Women who haven't had children are at increased risk compared to childbearing women. The risk is more evident for women 40 and over. (The proliferation of **** tissue during the first pregnancy results in **** tissue becoming fully mature, thus less at risk for cancer).
**** cancer rates are lower in populations in which ****-feeding is common and long in duration. Again, **** cells capable of lactating are cells that have fully matured or differentiated. This mature state confers a lower risk of **** cancer.
Age of Menopause
Women who enter menopause later have had more exposure to the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Consequently they are at a higher risk for **** cancer.
Personal History of **** Lesion
Such **** lesions are diagnosed as lobular or ductal "Atypical Hyperplasia," and may predispose a woman to **** cancer.
Radiation Exposure, Primarily to the Chest
Radiation can mutate DNA and cause **** cancer.
Personal History of **** Cancer
Family History of **** Cancer
A family history of **** cancer or other cancers found in association with **** Cancer (colon, brain, ovarian, etc.) can increase a woman's risk for **** cancer. It is important to know which family members were diagnosed with what type of cancer at what age.
Studies show that regular mammography screening of women between the ages of 50 and 69 reduces **** cancer mortality by approximately 30% in this age group. However, women with **** cancer will not benefit from mammography screening unless they have access to appropriate treatment. [Source: National **** Cancer Coalition]
**** Pills and Hormone Replacement Therapy
Numerous studies have been conducted and it seems there is some increased risk of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) causing **** cancer. Recently, at the Third European **** Cancer Conference, a study reported that women who use OCPs, especially after age 45, are at greater risk of developing **** cancer compared to women who haven't used the pills. According to the National Cancer Institute, there is also concern that HRT somewhat increases the risk of **** cancer. Studies show that compared to women who didn't take ERT (estrogen only replacement therapy), there was a 10% increase in **** cancer risk for each 5 years of use. For women who took HRT in a sequential manner ( three weeks of estrogen followed by a week of progesterone) their risk increased to 38% for every 5 years of use. Randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled studies need to be conducted. In fact, the Women's Health Initiative study will help us answer this question in respect to Hormone Replacement Therapy and information shall be forthcoming in approximately 2005.
Weight gain after age 18 is associated with an increased risk of post-menopausal **** cancer.
Indirect evidence exists indicating that there is an inverse relationship between amount of physical activity levels and one's risk of **** cancer. The NCI reports that 2/3 of research demonstrates an inverse relationship of physical activity to **** cancer. The decrease risk is approximately 30% on average!
The relationship between alcohol and **** cancer is consistent among associations of dietary factors and **** cancer risks, and is likely related to alcohol's (beer, wine, and liquor) ability to increase estrogen levels. Most doctors recommend no more than seven alcoholic beverages per week for women.
Feminist Majority Foundation
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